Friday, May 15, 2020

Essay Police Culture - 1335 Words

Police Culture Marissa Efros, Lysa Lawson, Awele Meju, Makita Walker, Joseph Washington CJA/214 May 24, 2012 Jesse Banks Police Culture The history of policing can be traced back to the beginning of time. When looking at the subject of police work there is a large culture and history that follows along with it. There are many topics that can be analyzed when identifying, and describing the elements and the significances that are associated with policing. A large element of the police job that plays a large factor in the work and attributes to the policing culture is the amount of stress that an office will face while performing on the job. Another part of the job that plays a large part in the culture†¦show more content†¦Both harmful and helpful to Police Culture Officers, stress plays an important role in the effectiveness of a police officer both on and off duty. Police officers face several types of stress while on the job. The most common stressors come from internal and external factors. Eustress is a common type of stress that is normal and good, even considering the nature of the job of police officers. Distress is behavior outside of the normal range and is harmful to police over a long period of time. Within the department, internal stress factors include officers facing long hours, constant shift changes, issues of pay, lack of promotions, and excessive paperwork. Some external stressors include overly critical media coverage of police activities and investigations, lack of community support, overly lenient courts, and an ineffective criminal justice system. When it comes to race within law enforcement, male police officers still question whether women can handle the dangerous situations and physical confrontations that officers may be confronted with, while it is shown that most police women have easily met the expectations of their superiors. Indeed, studies have found that, in general, male and female officers perform in similar ways. In addition, research has found that most citizens have positive things to say about the work of police women (Worden,Show MoreRelatedPolice Brutality And The Police As An Institution, And Police Culture2196 Words   |  9 Pagesconsiderably over the past few years as cases of police brutality and corruption have surfaced in the media and in the courtroom. Commentators agree that three issues have shaped the role of ethics in policing: styles of policing, the police as an institution, and police culture. Banks, C. (2013). Criminal justice ethics: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. On e of the few things that is really dividing the country is the attitude towards the police due to the killings of African AmericansRead MorePolice Culture Essay943 Words   |  4 PagesPolice Culture in the United States Internal and External Mechanisms Police Culture in the United StatesAlthough it is senior police management that makes decisions about police strategy, departmental policy, and the allocation of police resources, ordinary officers in fact make the great majority of day-to-day policing decisions. These police officers decide whom to stop, whom to question, and whom to arrest, as well as how best to deal with public concerns and complaints. SeeRead MoreThe Elements Behind Policing And Police Culture3506 Words   |  15 PagesThe Elements Behind Policing and Police Culture by Tyneiseca Epps Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Master of Science in Criminal Justice Seminar in Law Enforcement Mississippi Valley State University November 18, 2014 The Elements Behind Policing and Police Culture Introduction A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and to limit civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force. The termRead MoreNecessity Of Reform Throughout Police Culture1651 Words   |  7 PagesThomas Cascio Dr. Smith ENC1101 18 June, 2015 Necessity of Reform in Police Culture If America is to continue on as a civil country, where people are free to feel safe in their everyday lives, then there is a desperate need for reform in the current police culture. There is a certain culture of silence prevalent among law enforcement officers. It is usually known as the Blue Wall of Silence, or the Blue Code. It is an unwritten rule among officers, to not report on each other’s mistakes, misconductsRead MorePolice Brutality And Its Effects On American Culture1793 Words   |  8 PagesPart One: Topic and Discipline The focus of my research is on police brutality, specifically on the various components of excessive force and what aspects of American culture allow it to continue. This topic is multidisciplinary, and fits within the bounds of sociology, African American studies, criminal justice, law, and public policy. There are multiple factors which influence police brutality, including but not limited to, location, segregation, community accountability, demographics, and currentRead MorePolice Culture, Personality And Stress Factors Essay1893 Words   |  8 Pages In policing, officers are given the role to serve and protect citizens, and carry out justice. In addition, are expected by society to protect lives and property. When a police officer fails to comply with these general principles, he or she is considered deviant. Corruption and misconduct have been present in society since the beginning of policing. An infamous case in American policing history is the Michael Dowd case, where a f ormer NYPD officer was convicted for engaging in numerous criminalRead MoreEssay about Effects of Organizational Culture on Police Decision Making1056 Words   |  5 PagesThis essay discusses the effects of the police organizational culture on a Police officer’s ability to make independent decisions. Every culture is composed of four elements: â€Å"values, norms, beliefs, and expressive symbols† (Peterson, 1979, p. 137). Each police officer is influenced by the police organizational culture during training. After graduation fro the police academy, the officer is influenced by the more experienced officers of the department. Research conducted by several authorsRead MoreAnalysis Of Christine Nixon s Theory On The Culture Of Victoria Police3273 Words   |  14 PagesChristine Nixon’s attempt in transforming the culture of Victoria Police. Through this essay different approaches and theories of management are discussed and incorporated to understand the concepts of change. In response, focus on the fact that how effective leadership can transform the strong management culture within a workplace. This essay would further then demonstrate that people’s psychic prison could result in creating a bad workplace culture. Psychic prison is defined â€Å"as a knack of forRead MoreChanges of Police Culture1411 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The New Zealand Police is the lead agency responsible for helping the community to decrease or reduce crime, corruption and improve the responsibility of safety and protection in New Zealand. There is a need to make changes to the police culture in order to improve the performance of their organisation. However there are three fundamental errors that need to be addressed which will be discussed in this essay. Firstly, there is a lack of an established sense of urgency which has theRead MoreWestern Australia Police Misconduct And What Culture Needs Be A Safe And Protected Place For Its People2512 Words   |  11 Pagestask and duty of law enforcement officers is to maintain a safe and protected place for its people. Western Australia police is one of the eight authorities in Australia and is primary responsible for handling the world’s biggest single jurisdiction wrapping an area of 2.5 million square kilometres with two regions, fourteen boroughs and one hundred fifty eight police posts. (WA POLICE 2014) However, in a report last 2010 by Trever Paddenbburg of the Sunday Times, one out of ten western Australian officers

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Martin Luther King Jr And The Civil Rights Movement

Panther Power When we think of the Civil Rights Movement, we often think of the most prominent leaders like Martin Luther King Jr, Rosa Parks, and Malcolm X who’ve surely paved the way for the beginning of the movement. However many times we overlook the ones who aren’t talked about in the classrooms during Black History Month, or when we’re discussing the Civil Rights Movement. In response, I dedicate my paper on an African-American Organization to those who promoted the freedom and rights of Black Americans and minorities just as much as Martin Luther King Jr or any other leader or organization during the movement. The greatly controversial Black Panther Party (BPP) In October of 1966 in Oakland, California, Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. They adopted their Black Panther symbol from an independent political party established the previous year. While they both attended college, they dreamed of a racially equal America and wanted to actively participate in the Civil Rights Movement but knew they couldn’t do it alone. After meeting and formally adding Elbert â€Å"Big Man† Howard, Sherman Forte, Reggie Forte, â€Å"Little† Bobby Hutton, Angela Davis and later Elaine Brown. They struggled as to where to the party should enter the movement and after the killing of an unarmed black male in Oakland they found their calling. In their all black ensemble, powder blue shirts, and shotguns, the Panthers began establishing patrols in blackShow MoreRelatedThe Civil Rights Movement : Martin Luther King Jr.1468 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement is one of the greatest things in this world we are most grateful for. If we lived during the time of segregation it would have been a difficult time for us because anyone with a different skin tone would not have equal rights like the white Americans did. Furthermore, there were many people who did things to give people with color rights. Of these people was a pastor named Martin Luther King Jr. he contributed greatly to the field of Civil Rights movement with marchesRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement 597 Words   |  2 Pagestheir rights? People who did not let anything get in their way, no matter how tough times got? This place was American during the 1960s. Change in American was about to come and the people in American were going to make sure it happened. The 1960s was a time of determination, self-expression, and excitement. The 1960s came with many ups and downs. But there was many people in the 60s that made a change during that time and their legacy still has an affect on us today. People such as Martin LutherRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Martin Luther King Jr.1174 Words   |  5 Pagesmemorable figure that revolutionized equally in the United States is Martin Luther King Jr. King was an activist leader during the Civil Rights Movement who nonviolently protested along with many of his followers, involving civil disobedience, peaceful symbolic protests and economic noncooperation. He used great and powerful speeches regarding racial discrimination and used other ways to fight back against inequality. For instance, King was arrested for nonviolently protesting in Birmingham when the cityRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Martin Luther King Jr. Essay1690 Words   |  7 PagesA civil rights leader by the name of Reverend (PBS, 2016) Martin Luther King Jr. changed the world he occupied and chang ed the future course of the United States of America by advocating for desegregation. Martin Luther King Junior was on a mission to end the segregation of the African American community. Segregation was the post result of slavery throughout the United States of America which enslaved Africans. He challenged the status quo of the time. Protesting peacefully and advocating for socialRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Martin Luther King Jr.1305 Words   |  6 PagesThe Civil Rights Movement was a crucially essential and impactful part of American history. Since the beginning of the first colonies, racism, segregation, and mistreatment has been present in our country. First coming to the new lands through the Triangular Trade, African Americans have suffered of a lack of humane rights. As they stood up for themselves, and other non-African American supporters with them, they lead to the unraveling of one of the longest successful trials that have been foughtRead MoreMartin Luther K ing Jr. : The Start Of The Civil Rights Movement1008 Words   |  5 PagesEssay The Civil Rights movement was a push to expand the rights of African Americans in the United States. It is widely known that Martin Luther King Jr. was the figurehead of this movement he got his start in the Montgomery bus boycotts as he organized and spoke on behalf of the African American community in Montgomery and worked closely with Rosa Parks and other civil rights activists. Although this is where the movement’s most prominent leader got his start, it should not be consideredRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.1168 Words   |  5 Pages Lundberg 36). In a London speech that Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered to the Christian Action Group on December 7, 1964, he discusses the positive gains that have been achieved by the civil rights movement. In this speech King provided his audience with several facts on how the people have came a long way from where they began and that the civil rights movement has made a great progress in its struggle for equal treatment under the law. In King s speech, he begins by claiming that they haveRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.1050 Words   |  5 PagesPerseverance The Civil Rights Movement was a critical time in the history of the United States of America. In this time of fighting, brutality, and injustice, leaders arose to fight for equality for all, one, in particular, was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. King is well-renowned for believing in something and standing up for it, even though the repercussion of his actions resulted in serving time in jail. While he served his time in Birmingham, he wrote a lengthy letter to inspire and admonishRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement Essay3359 Words   |  14 PagesUnited States of America. But first we must ask ourselves, how did this occur? Who lead African Americans to better living standards? Civil rights leaders, such as Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, and Rosa Parks, just to name a few. However, among these great names in history, there is one that stands out, and that man is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. King gave hope to those in need with his awe inspirin g sermons he performed at the church his grandfather founded. He changed foes to alliesRead MoreDr. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversy.† (Famous civil-rights†¦) As Martin Luther King, Jr. said, the â€Å"measure† of a man comes not when things are going well, but when things are times are challenging. In the time of the Civil Rights movement, lots of African American people were measured by how they managed difficult situations. The Civil rights movement had many influential leaders and events. The overall importance of the movement was the profound impact it had on American life. The Civil Rights Movement had many important

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Grapes Of Wrath Essay Opening Example For Students

Grapes Of Wrath Essay Opening Throughout history man has made many journeys, far and wide, Mosesgreat march though the Red Sea and Columbus crossing of the Atlantic Oceanare only a few of mans greatest voyages. Even today great journeys are being made. In every instances people have had to rise above themselves and over come emence odds. The Joads did just that by traveling to California to find work. Steinbeck shows one aspect of this real life journey by displaying it by a turtle and its struggle to reach the other side of a road. As the turtle is about to reach his goal, it is returned to its original location, but it does not waver in its determination, and continues across the road until it reaches the other side. The Joad family and Casy identify with this the most because the undergo tremendous heartache, yet they stay true to their plans and never give up. They are faced with death and sickness, but they never give up. Steinbeck wrote ?In the evening a strange thing happened: twenty families became one family, the children were the children of all the loss of home became one loss, and the golden time in the West was one dream? This was what the Joads were searching for they wanted to feel like they belonged. Ma was the one who was mostly searching for this. This is her journey to keep the family together. Her belief that a broken-family will not be able to accomplish anyth ing. This is displayed by her not allowing the two cars to split and arrive at California at different times, when one of the cars breaks down, as they are leaving Oklahoma. Ma says ?I aint a-gonna go.? The only way shell let the family break up is if pa whips her and makes her go. Pas journey is displayed by his trying to fit in and make a difference. He does not handle this move very well, and throughout their journey, he is confused, and not as headstrong as Ma. He realizes this also, he knows that he cant help the family the way he use to. So he searches for anyway he can help. When the rain was coming it was this idea to dig a ditch. It was a good idea but it failed and it reflected on him. Tom Joad is a very complicated individual, who is a tremendous asset and at the same time a tremendous burden. His Parole causes his family an unneeded worry, while his ability to get work while very few people do, also benefited the family. He is also the main protagonists for his family, w ith his independent nature, and the main follower of Casys philosophy on human nature. Toms journey let to Casys death it wasnt his fault but he realized the importance of Casys ideas. This ultimately let to this leaving the family to help other people. Tom said ?Ill be aroun in the dark. Ill be everwhere wherever you look. Wherever theys a fight so hungry people can eat, Ill be there. Wherever theys a cop beatin up a guy, Ill be there.Ill be in the way guys yell when theyre mad an Ill be in the way kids laugh when theyre hungry an they know suppers ready. An when our folks eat the stuff they raise an live in the houses they build why Ill be there.? Tom was in a way like a hero to his people. Casy has frequently been compared with Jesus Christ, and his lifestyle of preaching and leading people in revolt, as well as sacrificing himself for Tom and the Joad family demonstrates this common held belief well. He also had a follower, or disciple in Tom, who after Casys death carries his message, and aids other with it. The Joad family along with Casy show the benefit of people uniting in order to accomplish goals. .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e , .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .postImageUrl , .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e , .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:hover , .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:visited , .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:active { border:0!important; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:active , .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8fd466e627581d334b83e8a671594d8e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Heart of darkness kurtz accord EssayRose of Sharon baby symbolizes live and death. The baby dies but in a way it brings live to the old man who needs milk. The end of the book is not the end of their journey. The people are only still at the beginning. But the hardest part is past. They realize that family isnt first . Ma said it best when so said, ?Useta be fambly was fust. It aint so now. Its anybody. Worse off we get the more we got to do.?

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Philosophy Issues Paleys Argument of Eye and Telescope

I. I. â€Å"I know of no better method of introducing so large a subject, than that of comparing a single thing with a single; an eye, for example, with a telescope. As far as the examination of the instrument goes, there is precisely the same proof that the eye was made for vision, as there is that the telescope was made for assisting it.† (William Paley).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Philosophy Issues: Paley’s Argument of Eye and Telescope specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paley argues that an eye and a telescope are so much specialized in their function that they cannot be the product of an accident. They must have been designed. Even if we have never seen the designer, we should not claim that there is none. Paley (1) started his argument by the perception that someone has when he randomly meets stone and a watch. The person who meets a stone will conclude that the stone could have been t here all along or been there purposelessly. However, the watch must have been made by someone because there is no way different parts can come together by themselves to perform a single function. The strength of Paley’s argument is that a good product is rarely the outcome of chance or an accident. An eye and a telescope are almost similar in the parts that they assemble to provide vision, particularly in the use of lenses and the formation of the image behind the lenses. If the parts of the telescope must be assembled by a designer, it follows that the parts of an eye must have been assembled as well (Paley 2). Paley’s argument creates the impression that living things have parts that are so much specialized that they must have an author. In a human being, there are sets of organs that perform specialized functions. The organs operate more efficiently to conserve energy. According to Darwin, the parts evolved from simple forms to more complicated and specialized forms . Whewell (194), in response to Lyell’s Principles, declared that there should be evidence of the cause of the change from one form to another. Darwin (8) argued that the cause of change is the struggle for existence. It allows individuals who are highly adapted to propagate their genes at the expense of the weaker ones of the same species. There is evidence of a continuous struggle for existence among living things. The question that can be raised is that a species cannot develop an eye if it is not encrypted in their DNA. Someone would want to know how the struggle for existence has finally resulted in the encryption of new parts into the DNA of a certain species.Advertising Looking for term paper on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Biology indicates that animals may change the size, color, and shape of existing parts only because they already exist in their DNA. In Biology, only certain chemicals may resul t in the change of the DNA. The struggle for existence cannot change the DNA that can result in the formation of new parts. However, it can result in stronger and better-adapted parts and forms of life (Darwin 8). Hume (4) dismissed the adaptation of parts because the animals that become adapted finally die and new ones are produced. However, Darwin’s approach is that animals that have certain better abilities propagate their genes because of their specialized abilities. In the example of the eye, a human being with the best vision survives in the jungle and is able to produce offspring. The one with a poor vision dies with no offspring. In the end, only those with a perfect sight remain. In this case, only eagles with the best vision and the swiftest grasp remain. However, what would have forced human beings or eagles to form eyes cannot be described with certainty in the first place. Stumbling upon some chemical that alters the DNA cannot produce eyes. The struggle for exis tence may not change the DNA. Paley argued that something that happens by chance could produce â€Å"a wart, a mole, a simple, but never an eye† (5). A pimple is possible because it is not an assembly of different parts performing one function. In all cases, the argument is the same. A stone is not an assembly of parts. It can be formed through chance. Human beings would like to develop wings to fly. When the struggle for existence can be used as a cause for the prevalence of the more specialized forms, there is no evidence of struggle among celestial bodies arranged in sustainable patterns. Isaac Newton’s thought is that â€Å"the stars are so evenly spaced throughout the heavens and cannot be understood without reference to God’s intentions† (â€Å"Darwin, evolution and modern history: Dar Rev 2014 Slides Living 1† 7). One would wonder what made the stars evenly distributed that they do not collide or merge to become one huge body. They do not st ruggle to exist. It is similar to Paley’s argument where an assembly of different parts results in a system that functions together harmoniously. They cannot assemble by chance without the outcome of an accident. The outcome of an accident is likely to involve a waste. Waste may include parts that do not add value to the functioning of the system. According to Darwin (8), unused parts are eliminated through time.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Philosophy Issues: Paley’s Argument of Eye and Telescope specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organic fossils need to be studied similarly to the rocks. Whewell discussed that â€Å"the fossils and medals found under city ruins are to be used in the same spirit and purpose† (500). Scientists face the problem of creating a link between stages. For example, the small gradual changes from Homo Habilis to Homo Erectus. Lyell explained that it would have been possible if â€Å"it was part of the plan of nature to preserve an unbroken series of monuments to commemorate the vicissitudes of the organic creation† (34). Scientists have tried to develop a link between different stages in the evolution of mankind. However, there are millions of species that would need a similar linkage. Both Darwin and Paley base their argument on the vertebrates, which have similar body structures in terms of bone formation and body functions. However, the two authors differ on the issue of the origin of species. Paley holds that a similar body structure is a sign of contrivance, which assures the existence of a designer. Darwin uses a similar body structure to infer a common origin. Paley gives a valid argument that an assembly of different parts cannot occur by chance. Darwin’s theory is left with the difficult task of proving how new parts are encrypted into the DNA of young ones because they may not be of generic value (Darwin 12). The s olar system is an assembly of celestial bodies that do not struggle to exist. One would wonder what made the planets develop different masses and atmospheric characteristics if they have the same origin. II. â€Å"It is remarkable how Darwin recognized among beasts and plants his English society with its division of labor, competition, opening up of markets, ‘inventions’, and Malthusian ‘struggle for existence’ —with Darwin the animal kingdom figures as a bourgeois society.† (Karl Marx in correspondence with Friedrich Engels.) Darwin recognized that among beasts and plants there is a division of labor. Plants provide animals with food and oxygen. In return, animals provide carbon dioxide and manure for plants (Marx and Engels par. 2). There is competition whenever beasts have an interest in the same resources. Lions will kill hyenas to reduce competition for meat. Wolves and cheetahs will target the same animals for food. The same competition occurs among human beings when there is a conflict of interest. Division of labor may also occur in animals of the same species. For example, male lions may guard the boundaries and lionesses may specialize in hunting. There is a great division of labor among human beings. Division of labor increases productivity among human beings.Advertising Looking for term paper on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The farmer has ample time to carry out his duties as a result of taking his children to school. Some animals feed while others watch out. It allows those that feed ample time to find the best food and adequate quantities. It also eliminates distraction from those that are on the lookout for predators. According to the statement, the struggle is an occurrence of chance emerging from overpopulation and the struggle for existence. It leads to the invention in animals as in mankind. As a result of the struggle and invention, a baboon finds out that it can be more satisfied by feeding on a single flamingo rather than plant shoots. However, there is difficulty in catching flamingoes. Opening up of markets is where animals will go further than usual in such food and water. During periods of scarcity, animals may widen the boundaries in which they search for food. Plenty of food in an area may also invite animals from far regions. In English society, merchants were known to bring supplies o f goods that were scarce in England. In return, they would export those that are in plenty. In the animal kingdom, animals have several options among different animals that they can hunt for food. The ones found in plenty are easily killed. They will be frequently hunted until their numbers are reduced. Paley (7) argued that it is a system to prevent overpopulation. In business, inventions come as a result of trying to gain a competitive advantage over other businesses. In the animal kingdom, the invention provides better knowledge that allows an animal to use less effort in the struggle for existence. The need for invention comes as a result of competition. The propagation of species is such that animals of the same species have certain advantages over other species different from their own. Darwin (59) argued that there is intense competition among animals of the same species because of the similarity of abilities. The differences among species create a form of divided labor. Anim als of different species tend to target different parts of the same resources. Their abilities are increasingly being adapted for the different resources they target. The division of labor among species reduces the struggle for existence and increases the chances of survival. A giraffe feeds on trees and a gazelle on the grass. The height of the giraffe and its kicks prevent a lion from reaching its throat easily. The gazelle’s speed is its best rescue. Each species survives, according to their different abilities. Within the species, those which display stronger qualities of their competitive abilities can propagate their genes. Competition emerges from seeking the same resources and from overpopulation. Paley (7) argued that â€Å"pain teaches vigilance and caution, gives notice to danger, and excites those endeavors which may be necessary to preserve the species† (7). As a result of scarcity of resources brought about by overpopulation, the proletariat would turn ag ainst the bourgeoisie. Hume (5) described a situation where insects can molest lions despite their strength. The Malthusian theory predicts the intensification of the struggle for existence as a result of overpopulation. In the animal kingdom, the search for green plants intensifies as the population of herbivores increase. However, their population is kept at a sustainable number by the carnivores. Mankind has been able to reproduce at a high rate after reducing the struggle for existence from the struggle of necessities to the struggle for additional pleasures. The bourgeoisie society has been described with a continuous class struggle for necessities and enjoyment (Marx and Engels par. 4). Engels draws a difference between the bourgeoisie struggles in mankind from that of animals because animals only gather finished products and are more concerned about necessities (Marx and Engels par. 4). Some animals may show an indication of enjoyment too. Birds satisfied with the necessity o f food and water may bathe in the soil as a form of relaxation. The bourgeoisie is known as a society where everyone seeks his own benefit (Marx and Engel par. 13). The animal kingdom is similar. Animals may also be friendly to their own kind once they have satisfied their individual needs. The struggle where everyone seeks to satisfy their individual needs leads to those who are more adapted to the changing conditions to survive when the weaker of their species are wiped out by scarcity. Division of labor may have resulted in better-performing parts. The different body parts form systems that are better adapted for their function. Different species also specialize in areas that provide a better chance of survival. Adam Smith claimed that a â€Å"workman not educated to this business, has by the division of labor rendered a distinct trade† (8). It is the situation when a workman gains skills through practice rather than education. It is similar to Darwin’s view that di fferent species have gained competitive advantages by repeatedly using certain abilities (Darwin 8). The abilities that provide a species with its distinction become a common feature among the offspring that will be able to survive in the struggle for existence. Marx and Engel (par. 2), in the statement, were not surprised that the same theory used in history could be used in natural sciences. At a glance, human beings may appear free from the struggle for existence. Invention and innovation have allowed mankind to live in numbers that would be considered overpopulation if human beings lived in their natural state. A closer look at animals, one realizes similar struggles as those of mankind. The search for new markets and division of labor are inventions that tend to create an advantage over individuals and nations. The individual that innovates becomes dominant. Historically, the most successful men were able to sire more children than the less successful men. Currently, the trend has changed because men are afraid to have more children alarmed by economic difficulties. It goes back to Paley’s argument that the struggle creates an awareness of danger, which reduces overpopulation in human beings. Today, in a more developed country like England, there is hardly direct combat in the struggle for resources. However, the struggle for existence has not stopped. It will be evident in firms that restructure to remain in the market place. There are individuals who develop rare technical skills, which allow them to tap into resources that are hardly available to the majority. Animals as well may develop rare skills that allow a species to tap into resources unreachable to others. Works Cited Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. 6th ed. 2009. New York: Cambridge University Press. Print. â€Å"Darwin, evolution and modern history: Dar Rev 2014 Slides Living 1†. Web. Hume, David. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779). Passages distributed in class. Lyell, Charles. Principles of Geology [1830-1833, vol. 3], London: John Murray. Passages distributed in class. Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. Marx-Engels Correspondence 1875: Engels to Lavrov 12 November 1875. n.d. Web. Paley, William. Natural Theology or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Collected from the Appearances of Nature. 12th ed. 1809. London: Fauldner. Darwin-online Organization. Web. Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations [1776], 5th ed. 1904. London: Methuen. Passages distributed in class. Whewell, William. History of the Inductive Sciences (1837). Passages distributed in class. This term paper on Philosophy Issues: Paley’s Argument of Eye and Telescope was written and submitted by user Paris Wilcox to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Beliefs in Society essays

Beliefs in Society essays And any creature that shall seem to be human, but is not formed thus is not human. It is neither man nor woman. It is a blasphemy against the true Image of God, and hateful in the sight of God. (pg.13) A society is a structured community of people bound together by similarities. The novel The Chrysalids, by John Wyndham, is about the struggle of surviving after several hundred years of radiation, due to the nuclear holocaust. What is left of civilization is the three surviving societies, the Waknuks, the Fringes, and the Sealanders. The Waknuks are governed by religious beliefs, and consider anything that is not in the true image to be a blasphemy to God. The Fringes are all the mutants that were once living at Waknuk but then abolished from Waknuk since they were distinguished between the norms . The Sealanders are far away from Waknuk and the Fringes. They are more technologically advanced the rest of the societies and they all posses the ability of thinking-shapes. The three societies, the Waknuks, the Fringes, and the Sealanders have similar and different beliefs on the way they live life. The Waknuk society was originated by Elias Strorm. Elias Strorm had two boys, Joseph and Gordon. Gordon was the older one, and he was the one to inherit the town of Waknuk, but he began to develop abnormality and was sent off to live in the Fringes by himself. Therefore Joseph inherited Waknuk, and ever since his father died, he was the leader of the town. The reason Gordon was abandoned by his family was because the Waknuks believe that God made everyone in his own image and if you were not in the true image you were consider to be created by the Devil. The Devil sends Deviations among us to weaken us and tempt us away from Purity. That us what the inspector told David about Sophie about her six toes. The Waknuk society is inconsiderate because they dont believe mutants ar...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Interfaces, Database Integration, and Controls Essay

Interfaces, Database Integration, and Controls - Essay Example Software interfaces can be termed as the codes and languages in which applications use to interconnect to each other and also with the hardware devices. Programs or application that run on the operating system need to connect through streams, while in object oriented programs, the applications connect through methods. User interface are the components of the computer that enable communication between the computer and user (Wolpaw et.al, 2012). Database integration includes joining information existing in different sources and providing the operators with a similar understanding of these information. This technique became important in numerous circumstances which included both scientific and commercial. This integration enables the user to be able to access any piece of information from anywhere whether at home or at the office and be able to use the data in almost any application (Doan et.al, 2012). Controls are separate devices, chips or an accessory card, which interfaces with devices that feed data into or out of a computer. It can be a controller on a peripheral device which pedals the processes of that device or connections among two components of a computer. A controller in desktops might be a single-integrated circuit found on the motherboard or peripheral devices whereas a device integrated into the external devices in supercomputers is also a controller (Hellerstein, 2004). Information should be safely secured and easily available whenever needed for examination. Thus Interfaces, Database Integration, and Controls play a major part when it comes to management of data. The interfaces need to direct the operators on how to get the best outcomes from the computer system while database integration will help users to have access to information they need from anywhere as long as they have access to the database. Lastly the controller’s